Research Articles and Reviews

1998-present – CUNY ASRC and UTSW labs:

115. Xu, X., Marcelino, L.P., Favaro, D.C., Silvestrini, M.L., Solazzo, R., Chong, L.T., and Gardner, K.H. (2024) Identification of Small Molecule Ligand Binding Sites On and In the ARNT PAS-B Domain. bioRxiv ( Abstract and full text )

114. Gagné, D., Azad, R., Aramini, J.M., Xu, X., Isiorho, E.A., Edupuganti, U.R., Williams, J., Marcelino, L.P., Akasaka, K., and Gardner, K.H. (2024) Use of high pressure NMR spectroscopy to rapidly identify proteins with internal ligand-binding voids. bioRxiv ( Abstract and full text )

113.  Khorasanizadeh, S. and Gardner, K.H. (2024). Mechanisms of PAS domain signalling, from sensing varied small molecules and peptides to approved pharmaceuticals and optogenetics. J. Mol. Biol., 436: 168457 ( Abstract and full text )

112. Xiao, M.†, Dhungel, S.†, Azad, R.†, Favaro, D.C., Rajesh, R.P., Gardner, K.H.#, and Kikani, C.K.# (2024) Signal-regulated unmasking of nuclear localization motif in the PAS domain regulates the nuclear translocation of PASK. J. Mol. Biol., 436: 168433. ( Abstract and full text ) (†: equal contributors; #: corresponding authors)

111. Dikiy, I.†, Swingle, D.†, Toy, K., Edupuganti, U.R., Rivera-Cancel, G., and Gardner, K.H. (2023) Diversity of function and higher-order structure within HWE sensor histidine kinases. J. Biol. Chem., 299: 104934. ( Abstract and full text ) (†: equal contributors)

110. Berlew, E.E., Yamada, K., Kuznetsov, I.A., Rand, E.A., Ochs, C.C., Jaber, Z., Gardner K.H., and Chow, B.Y. (2022) Designing single-component optogenetic membrane recruitment systems: The Rho-family GTPase signaling toolbox. ACS Syn Bio, 11: 515-521. ( Abstract and full text )

109. Siclari, J.J. and Gardner, K.H. (2021) Two steps, one ligand: How PPARγ binds small-molecule agonists. Structure, 29: 935-936. ( Abstract and full text )

108. Hart, J.E. and Gardner, K.H. (2021) Lighting the way: Recent insights into the structure and regulation of phototropin blue light receptors. J. Biol. Chem., 296: 100594. ( Abstract and full text )

107.  Xu, X., Dikiy, I., Evans, M.R., Marcelino, L.P., and Gardner, K.H. (2021) Fragile protein folds: Sequence and environmental factors affecting the equilibrium of two interconverting, stably folded protein conformations. Magn. Reson., 2: 63-76. ( Abstract and full text )

106. LaBelle, J., Ramos-Martinez, A., Shen, K., Motta-Mena, L.B., Gardner, K.H., Materna, S.C., and Woo, S. (2021) TAEL 2.0: An improved optogenetic expression system for zebrafish. Zebrafish, 18: 20-28. ( Abstract and full text )

105. Xu, X., Gagné, D., Aramini, J.M., and Gardner, K.H. (2021) Volume and compressibility differences between two stably folded protein conformations revealed by high pressure NMR. Biophys J, 120: 924-935. ( Abstract and full text ; featured as New & Notable commentary from Sprangers )

104. Iuliano, J.N., Collado, J.N., Gil, A.A., Ravindran, P.T., Lukacs, A., Shin, S.Y., Woroniecka, H.A., Aramini, J.M., Edupuganti, U.R., Hall, C.R., Greetham, G.M., Sazanovich, I.V., Clark, I.P., Daryaee, T., Toettcher, J.E., French, J.B., Gardner, K.H., Simmerling, C.L., Meech, S.R., and Tonge, P.J. (2020) Unraveling the mechanism of a LOV domain optogenetic sensor: A glutamine lever induces unfolding of the Jα helix. ACS Chem Bio15: 2752-2765 ( Abstract and full text )

103. Dikiy, I. and Gardner, K.H. (2019) Shining light on the Alphaproteobacterial general stress response. Mol. Micro., 112: 438-441. ( Abstract and full text )

102.  Dikiy, I., Clark, L., Gardner, K.H., and Rosenbaum, D.M.† (2019) Isotopic labeling of eukaryotic membrane proteins for NMR studies of interactions and dynamics. Meth. Enz.614: 37-65. (†: corresponding authors) 

101. Dikiy, I., Edupuganti, U.R., Abzalimov, R.R., Borbat, P.B., Srivastava, M., Freed, J.H., and Gardner, K.H. (2019) Insights into histidine kinase activation mechanisms from the monomeric blue light sensor EL346. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 116: 4963-4972. ( Abstract and full text )

Clark, L., Dikiy, I., Rosenbaum, D.M.†, and Gardner, K.H.† (2018) On the use of Pichia pastoris for isotopic labeling of human GPCRs for NMR studies. J. Biomol. NMR, 71: 203-211. ( Abstract and full text ) (†: corresponding authors)

Glantz, S.T., Berlew, E.E., Jaber, Z., Schuster, B.S., Gardner, K.H., and Chow, B.Y. (2018) Directly light-regulated binding of RGS-LOV photoreceptors to anionic membrane phospholipids. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 115: E7720-E7727. ( Abstract and full text )

Losi, A.†, Gardner, K.H.†, and Möglich, A.† (2018) Blue-light receptors for optogenetics. Chem. Res : 10659-10709. ( Abstract and full text ) (†: corresponding authors)

Clark, L.*, Dikiy, I.*, Chapman, K., Rödström, K.E., Aramini, J., LeVine, M., Khelashvili, G., Rasmussen, S.G.F., Gardner, K.H.†, and Rosenbaum, D.M.† (2017) Ligand modulation of sidechain dynamics in a wild-type human GPCR. eLife, 6: e28505. ( Abstract and full text ) (*: equal contributions, †: corresponding authors)

Reade, A., Motta-Mena, L.B., Gardner, K.H., Stanier, D.Y., Weiner, O.D., and Woo, S. (2017) TAEL: A zebrafish-optimized optogenetic gene expression system with fine spatial and temporal control. Development, 144: 345-355. ( Abstract and full text )

Corrêa, F., Key. J., Kuhlman, B., and Gardner K.H. (2016) Computational repacking of the HIF-2α cavity replaces water-based stabilized core. Structure, 24: 1918-1927. ( Abstract and full text )

Chen, W., Hill, H., Christie, A., Kim, M.S., Holloman, E., Pavía-Jiménez, A., Homayoun, F., Ma, Y., Patel, N., Yell, P., Hao, G., Yousuf, Q., Joyce, A., Pedrosa, I., Geiger, H., Zhang, H., Chang, J. Gardner, K.H., Bruick, R.K., Reeves, C., Hwang, T.H., Courtney, K., Frenkel, E., Sun, X., Zojwalla, N., Wong, T., Rizzi, J.P., Wallace, E.M., Josey, J.A., Xie, Y., Xie, X.-J., Kapur, P., McKay, R.M., and Brugarolas, J. (2016) Targeting renal cell carcinoma with a HIF-2 antagonist. Nature, 539: 112-117. ( Abstract and full text )

93. Corrêa, F. and Gardner, K.H. (2016) Basis of mutual domain inhibition in a bacterial response regulator. Cell Chem. Biol., 23: 945-954. ( Abstract and full text )

Glantz, S.T., Carpenter, E.J., Melkonian, M., Gardner, K.H., Boyden, E.S., Wong, G.K.-S., and Chow, B.Y. (2016) Functional and topological diversity of LOV domain photoreceptors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 113: E1442-E1451. ( Abstract and full text )

Scheuermann, T.H., Padrick, S.B., Gardner, K.H., and Brautigam, C.A. (2016) On the acquisition and analysis of microscale thermophoresis data. Anal. Biochem., 496: 79-93. ( Abstract and full text )

Scheuermann, T.H., Stroud, D., Sleet, C.E., Bayeh, L., Shokri, C., Wang, H., Caldwell, C.G., Longgood, J., MacMillan, J.B., Bruick, R.K., Gardner, K.H., and Tambar, U.K. (2015) Isoform-selective and sterospecific inhibition of hypoxia inducible factor-2. J. Med. Chem., 58: 5930-5941. ( Abstract and full text )

Clark, L., Zahm, J.A., Ali, R., Kukula, M., Bian, L., Patrie, S.M., Gardner, K.H., Rosen, M.K., and Rosenbaum, D.R. (2015) Methyl labeling and TROSY NMR spectroscopy of proteins expressed in the eukaryote Pichia pastoris. J. Biomol. NMR, 62: 239-245. ( Abstract and full text )

Guo, Y., Scheuermann, T.H., Partch, C.L., Tomchick, D.R., and Gardner, K.H. (2015) Coiled-coil coactivators play a structural role mediating interactions in hypoxia inducible factor heterodimerization. J. Biol. Chem., 290: 7707-7721. ( Abstract and full text )

Ocasio, V., Corrêa, F., and Gardner, K.H. (2015) Ligand-induced folding of a two component signaling receiver domain. Biochemistry, 54: 1353-1363. ( Abstract and full text )

Rivera-Cancel, G., Ko, W.-H., Tomchick, D.R., Corrêa, F., and Gardner, K.H. (2014) Full-length structure of a monomeric histidine kinase reveals basis for sensory regulation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 111: 17839-17844. ( Abstract and full text | Recommended at F1000 )

Motta-Mena, L.B., Reade, A., Mallory, M.J., Glantz, S., Weiner, O.D., Lynch, K.W., and Gardner, K.H. (2014) An optogenetic gene expression system with rapid activation and deactivation kinetics. Nat. Chem. Biol., 10: 196-202. ( Abstract and full text )

Salomon, D., Guo, Y., Kinch, L.N., Grishin, N.V., Gardner, K.H., and Orth, K. (2013) Effectors of animal and plant pathogens use a common domain to bind host phosphoinositides. Nat. Comm., 4: 2973. ( Abstract and full text )

Zoltowski, B.D., Motta-Mena, L.B., and Gardner K.H. (2013) Blue-light induced dimerization of a bacterial LOV-HTH DNA-binding protein. Biochemistry, 52: 6653-6661. ( Abstract and full text )

Corrêa, F., Ko, W.-H., Ocasio, V., Bogomolni, R.A., and Gardner, K.H. (2013) Blue light regulated two-component systems: Enzymatic and functional analyses of Light-Oxygen-Voltage(LOV)-histidine kinases and downstream response regulators. Biochemistry, 52: 4656-4666. ( Abstract and full text )

Rogers, J.L.*, Bayeh, L.*, Scheuermann, T.H.*, Longgood, J., Key, J., Naidoo, J., Melito, L., Shokri, C., Frantz, D.E., Bruick, R.K., Gardner, K.H., MacMillan, J.B., and Tambar, U.K. (2013) Development of inhibtors of the PAS-B domain of the HIF-2α transcription factor. J. Med. Chem., 56: 1739-1747. ( Abstract and full text ) (*: equal contributions)

Scheuermann, T.H., Li, Q., Ma, H.-W., Key, J., Zhang, L., Chen, R., Garcia, J.A., Naidoo, J., Longgood, J., Frantz, D.E., Tambar, U.K., Gardner, K.H., and Bruick, R.K. (2013) Allosteric inhibition of hypoxia inducible factor-2 with small molecules. Nat. Chem. Biol., 9: 271-276. ( Abstract and full text )

Freddolino, P.L., Gardner, K.H., and Schulten, K. (2013) Signaling mechanisms of LOV domains: New insights from molecular dynamics studies. Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 12: 1158-1170. ( Abstract and full text )

Moon, T.M., Corrêa, F., Kinch, L.N., Piala, A.T., Gardner, K.H., and Goldsmith, E.J. (2013) Solution structure of the WNK1 autoinhibitory domain, a WNK-specific PF2 domain. J. Mol. Biol., 425: 1245-1252. ( Abstract and full text )

Guo, Y., Partch, C.L., Key, J., Card, P.B., Pashkov, V., Patel, A., Bruick, R.K., Wurdak, H., and Gardner, K.H. (2013) Regulating the ARNT/TACC3 axis: Multiple approaches to manipulating protein/protein interactions with small molecules. ACS Chemical Biology, 8: 626-635. ( Abstract and full text )

Rivera-Cancel, G.*, Motta-Mena, L.B.*, and Gardner, K.H. (2012) Identification of natural and artificial DNA substrates for light-activated LOV-HTH transcription factor EL222. Biochemistry, 51: 10024-10034. ( Abstract and full text ) (*: equal contributions)

75.  Markley, J.L., Akutsu, H., Asakura, T., Baldus, M., Boelens, R., Bonvin, A., Kaptein, R., Bax, A., Bezsonova, I., Gryk, M.R., Hoch, J.C., Korzhnev, D.M., Maciejewski, M.W., Case, D., Chazin, W.J., Cross, T.A., Dames, S., Kessler, H., Lange, O., Madl, T., Reif, B., Sattler, M., Eliezer, D., Fersht, A., Forman-Kay, J., Kay, L.E., Fraser, J., Gross, J., Kortemme, T., Sali, A., Fujiware, T., Gardner, K.H., Luo, X., Rizo-Rey, J., Rosen, M.K., Gil, R.R., Ho, C., Rule, G., Gronenborn, A.M., Ishima, R., Klein-Seetharaman, J., Tang, P., van der Wel, P., Xu, Y., Grzesiek, S., Hiller, S., Seeling, J., Laue, E.D., Mott, H., Nietlispach, D., Barsukov, I., Lian, L.Y., Middleton, D., Blumenschein, T., Moore, G., Campbell, I., Schnell, J., Vakonaski, I.J., Watts, A., Conte, M.R., Mason, J., Pfuhl, M., Sanderson, M.R., Craven, J., Williamson, M., Dominguez, C., Roberts, G.C.K., Günther, U., Overduin, M., Werner, J., Williamson, P., Blindauer, C., Crump, M., Driscoll, P., Frenkiel, T., Golovanov, A., Matthews, S., Parkinson, J., Uhrin, D., Williams, M., Neuhaus, D., Oschkinat, H., Ramos, A., Shaw, D.E., Steinbeck, C., Vendruscolo, M., Vuister, G.W., Walters, K.J., Weinstein, H., Wüthrich, K., and Yokoyama, S. (2012)  In support of the BMRB.  Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol., 19: 854-860. ( Abstract and full text )

74. Rizo, J., Rosen, M.K., and Gardner, K.H. (2012) Enlightening molecular mechanisms through study of protein interactions. J. Mol. Cell. Biol. 4: 270-283 ( Abstract and full text )

73. Gardner, K.H. and Corrêa, F. (2012) How plants see the invisible. Science, 335, 1451-1452. ( Full text | PDF )

72. Chollangi, S., Thompson, J.W., Ruiz, J.C., Gardner, K.H., and Bruick, R.K. (2012) The hemerythrin-like domain within F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein 5 communicates cellular iron and oxygen availability by distinct mechanisms. J. Biol. Chem., 287: 23710-23717. ( Abstract and full text )

Zoltowski, B.D., Nash, A.I., and Gardner, K.H. (2011) Variations in protein/flavin hydrogen bonding in a LOV domain produce non-Arrhenius kinetics of adduct decay. Biochemistry (Accelerated Publication), 50: 8771-8779. ( Abstract and full text )

Yuan, H., Dragnea, V., Wu, Q., Gardner, K.H., and Bauer, C.E. (2011) Mutational and structural studies of the PixD BLUF outputsignal that affects light-regulated interactions with PixE. Biochemistry, 50: 6365-6375. ( Abstract and full text )

Nash, A.I.*, McNulty, R.*, Shillito, M.E., Swartz, T.E., Bogomolni, R.A., Luecke, H., and Gardner, K.H. (2011) Structural basis of photosensitivity in a bacterial light-oxygen-voltage/helix-turn-helix (LOV-HTH) DNA-binding protein. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 108: 9449-9454. ( Abstract and full text ) (*: equal contributions)

Partch, C.L. and Gardner, K.H. (2011) Coactivators necessary for transcriptional output of the hypoxia inducible factor, HIF, are directly recruited by ARNT PAS-B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 108: 7739-7744. ( Abstract and full text )

Song, S.-H., Freddolino, P.L., Nash, A.I., Carroll, E.C., Schulten, K., Gardner, K.H., and Larsen, D.S. (2011) Modulating LOV domain photodynamics with a residue alteration outside the chromophore binding site. Biochemistry, 50: 2411-2423. ( Abstract and full text )

66.  Gardner, K.H., Mittermaier, A., and Mulder, F.A.A. (2011) A tribute to Lewis Kay on his 50th birthday. J. Biomol. NMR. 51: 3-4. ( Abstract and full text )

Zoltowski, B.D. and Gardner, K.H. (2011) Tripping the Light Fantastic: Blue-light photoreceptors as examples of environmentally modulated protein-protein interactions. Biochemistry, 50: 4-16. ( Abstract and full text )

Akella, R., Min, X., Wu, Q., Gardner, K.H., and Goldsmith, E.J. (2010) The third conformation of p38α MAP kinase observed in phosphorylated p38α and in solution. Structure, 18: 1571-1578. ( Abstract and full text )

63. Motta-Mena, L.B., Partch, C.L., and Gardner, K.H. (2010) The three Rs of transcription: Recruit, retain and recycle. Mol. Cell, 40, 855-858. ( Abstract and full text )

Partch, C.L. and Gardner, K.H. (2010) Coactivator recruitment: A new role for PAS domains in transcriptional regulation by the bHLH-PAS family. J. Cell. Physiol., 223: 553-557. ( Abstract and full text )

61. Strickland, D., Yao, X., Gawlak, G., Rosen, M.K., Gardner, K.H., and Sosnick, T.R. (2010) Rationally improving LOV domain-based photoswitches. Nature Methods, 7: 623-626. ( Abstract and full text | Recommended at F1000 )

Lehotzky, R.E.*, Partch, C.L.*, Mukherjee, S., Cash, H.L., Goldman, W.E., Gardner, K.H., and Hooper, L.V. (2010) Molecular basis for peptidoglycan recognition by a bactericidal lectin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 107: 7722-7727. ( Abstract and full text | Recommended at F1000). (*: equal contributions)

Key, J.*, Scheuermann, T.H.*, Anderson, P.C., Daggett, V. and Gardner, K.H. (2009) Principles of ligand binding within a completely buried cavity in HIF2α PAS-B. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 131: 17647-17654. ( Abstract and full text ). (*: equal contributions)

Evans, M.R. and Gardner, K.H. (2009) Slow interconversion between two β-strand registers is limited by protein unfolding. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 131: 11306-11307. ( Abstract and full text )

Partch, C.L., Card, P.B., Amezcua, C.A., and Gardner, K.H. (2009) Molecular basis of coiled coil coactivator recruitment by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT). J. Biol. Chem., 284: 15184-15192. ( Abstract and full text )

Wu, Q. and Gardner, K.H. (2009) Structure and insight into blue light-induced changes in the BlrP1 BLUF domain. Biochemistry, 48: 2620-2629. ( Abstract and full text / Recommended at F1000 )

Evans, M.R., Card, P.B., and Gardner, K.H. (2009) ARNT PAS-B has a fragile native state structure with an alternative β-sheet register nearby in sequence space. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 106: 2617-2622. ( Abstract and full text )

Mukherjee, S.*, Partch, C.L.*, Lehotzky, R.E., Whitham, C.V., Chu, H., Bevins, C.L., Gardner, K.H., and Hooper, L.V. (2009) Regulation of C-type lectin antimicrobial activity by a flexible N-terminal segment. J. Biol. Chem., 284: 4881-4888. (*: equal contributions) ( Abstract and full text )

Scheuermann, T.H., Tomchick, D.R., Machius, M., Guo, Y., Bruick, R.K., and Gardner, K.H. (2009) Artificial ligand binding within the HIF2α PAS-B domain of the HIF2 transcription factor. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 106: 450-455. ( Abstract and full text )

Nash, A.I.*, Ko, W.-H.*, Harper, S.M., and Gardner K.H. (2008) A conserved glutamine plays a central role in LOV domain signal transmission and its duration. Biochemistry, 47: 13842-13849. (*: equal contributions) ( Abstract and full text )

Wu, Q., Ko, W.-H., and Gardner K.H. (2008) Structural requirements for key residues and auxiliary portions of a BLUF domain. Biochemistry, 47: 10271-10280. ( Abstract and full text )

Sakiyama, H., Wynn, R.M., Lee, W.-R., Fukasawa, M., Mizuguchi, H., Gardner, K.H., Repa, J.J., and Uyeda, K. (2008) Regulation of nuclear import/export of ChREBP: Interaction of an α-helix of ChREBP with the 14-3-3 proteins and regulation by phosphorylation. J. Biol. Chem., 283: 24899-24908. ( Abstract and full text )

Yao, X., Rosen, M.K., and Gardner K.H. (2008) Estimation of the available free energy in a LOV2-Jα photoswitch. Nature Chem. Biol., 4: 491-497. ( Abstract and full text / News & Views by Vendruscolo / Recommended at F1000 )

48. Gardner, K.H. (2008) Molecular biophysics at UT Southwestern Medical Center: Strength through breadth. Biopolymers, 89: 244-247. ( Abstract and full text )

47. Lee, J., Tomchick, D.R., Brautigam, C.A., Machius, M., Kort, R., Hellingwerf, K.J., and Gardner, K.H. (2008) Changes at the KinA PAS-A dimerization interface influence histidine kinase function. Biochemistry, 47: 4051-4064. ( Abstract and full text / Hot Article – Biochemistry )

46. Ko, W.-H., Nash, A.I., and Gardner, K.H. (2007) A LOVely view of blue light photosensing. Nat. Chem. Biol., 3: 372-374. ( Abstract and full text )

Scheuermann, T.H., Yang, J., Zhang, L., Gardner, K.H., and Bruick, R.K. (2007) Hypoxia-Inducible Factors Per/ARNT/Sim Domains: Structure and Function. Meth. Enz., 435: 3-24. ( Abstract and full text )

44. Kajimura, J., Rahman, A., Hsu, J., Evans, M.R., Gardner, K.H., and Rick, P.D. (2006) O-acetylation of the enterobacterial common antigen polysaccharide is catalyzed by the product of the yiaH gene of Escherichia coli K-12. J. Bact., 188: 7542-7550. ( Abstract and full text )

Colbert, C., Wu, Q., Erbel, P.J.A., Gardner, K.H., and Deisenhofer, J. (2006) Mechanism of substrate specificity in Bacillus subtilis ResA, a thioredoxin-like protein involved in cytochrome c maturation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 103: 4410-4415. ( Abstract and full text )

42. Gardner, K.H. and Montminy, M.. (2005) Can you hear me now? Regulating transcriptional activators by phosphorylation. Science STKE, 2005: pe44. ( Abstract and full text )

Card, P.B. and Gardner, K.H. (2005) Identification and optimization of protein domains for NMR studies. Meth. Enz., 394: 3-16. ( Abstract and full text )

Yang, J., Zhang, L., Erbel, P.J.A., Gardner, K.H., Ding, K.M., Garcia, J.A., and Bruick, R.K. (2005) Functions of the Per/ARNT/Sim (PAS) domains of the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF). J. Biol. Chem., 280: 36047-36054. ( Abstract and full text )

Card, P.B., Erbel, P.J.A., and Gardner, K.H. (2005) Structural basis of ARNT PAS-B dimerization: Use of a common β-sheet interface for hetero- and homodimerization. J. Mol. Biol., 353: 664-677. ( Abstract and full text )

Socolich, M., Lockless, S.W., Russ, W.P., Lee, H., Gardner, K.H., and Ranganathan, R. (2005) Evolutionary information for specifying a protein fold. Nature, 437: 512-518. ( Abstract and full text / Recommended at F1000 )

Jung, A., Domratcheva, T., Tarutina, M., Wu, Q., Ko, W.-H., Shoeman, R.L., Gomelsky, M., Gardner, K.H., and Schlichting, I. (2005) Structure of a bacterial BLUF photoreceptor: Insights into blue light-mediated signal transduction. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 102: 12350-12355. ( Abstract and full text )

Best, J.L., Amezcua, C.A., Mayr, B., Flechner, L., Murawsky, C.M., Emerson, B., Zor., T., Gardner, K.H., and Montminy, M. (2004) Identification of small-molecule antagonists that inhibit an activator:coactivator interaction. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 101: 17622-17627. ( Abstract and full text / Faculty of 1000 )

Harper, S.M., Christie, J.M., and Gardner, K.H. (2004) Disruption of the LOV-Jα helix interaction activates phototropin kinase activity. Biochemistry, 43: 16184-16192. ( Abstract and full text )

Erbel, P.J.A., Seidel, R., Macintosh, S.E., Gentile, L.N, Amor, J.C., Kahn, R.A., Prestegard, J.H., McIntosh, L.P., and Gardner, K.H. (2004) Cyclic enterobacterial common antigen: Potential contaminant of bacterially expressed protein preparations. J. Biomol. NMR, 29: 199-204. ( Abstract and full text )

Harper, S.M., Neil, L.C., Day, I.J., Hore, P.J., and Gardner, K.H. (2004) Conformational changes in a photosensory LOV domain monitored by time-resolved NMR spectroscopy. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 126: 3390-3391. ( Abstract and full text )

Erbel, P.J.A., Card, P.B., Karakuzu, O., Bruick, R.K., and Gardner, K.H. (2003) Structural basis for PAS domain heterodimerization in the basic helix-loop-helix-PAS transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 100: 15504-15509. ( Abstract and full text )

Harper, S.M., Neil, L.C., and Gardner, K.H. (2003) Structural basis of a phototropin light switch. Science, 301: 1541-1544. ( Abstract and full text / Recommended at F1000 )

Erbel, P.J.A., Barr, K., Gao, N., Gerwig, G., Rick, P.D., and Gardner, K.H. (2003) Identification and biosynthesis of cyclic enterobacterial common antigen in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriology, 185: 1995-2004. ( Abstract and full text )

Amezcua, C.A., Harper, S.M., Rutter, J., and Gardner, K.H. (2002) Structure and interactions of PAS kinase N-terminal PAS domain: model for intramolecular kinase regulation. Structure, 10: 1349-1361. ( Abstract and full text / reviews by Getzoff and Wilson and Roach )

Xiao, T., Gardner, K.H., and Sprang, S.R. (2002) Cosolvent-induced transformation of a death domain tertiary structure. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 99: 11151-11156. ( Abstract and full text)

He, Q., Cheng, P., Yang, Y., Wang, L., Gardner, K.H., and Liu, Y. (2002) White collar-1, a DNA binding transcription and a light sensor. Science, 297: 840-843. ( Abstract and full text / News & Views by Linden / Recommended at F1000 )

Cheng, P., Yang, Y., Gardner, K.H., and Liu, Y. (2002) PAS domain-mediated WC-1/WC-2 interaction is essential for maintaining the steady-state level of WC-1 and the function of both proteins in circadian clock and light responses in Neurospora. Molec. Cell. Biol., 22: 517-524. ( Abstract and full text )

Holdeman, T.C. and Gardner, K.H. (2001) 1H, 13C and 15N chemical shift assignments of the N-terminal PAS domain of mNPAS2. J. Biomol. NMR, 21: 383-384. ( Abstract and full text )

Usher, K.C., Ozkan, E., Gardner, K.H. and Deisenhofer, J. (2001) The plug domain of FepA, a TonB-dependent transport protein from Escherichia coli, binds its siderophore in the absence of the transmembrane barrel domain. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 98: 10676-10681. ( Abstract and full text )

Rutter, J., Michnoff, C.H., Harper, S.M., Gardner, K.H., and McKnight, S.L. (2001) PAS kinase: an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase regulated in cis by PAS domains. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 98: 8991-8996. ( Abstract and full text )

Schweitzer, B.I., Foti, M., Keertikar, K., Kumar, S., Gardner, K.H., and Tucker-Kellogg, G. (1999) The use of 31P relaxation experiments to probe the effects of nucleoside analogs on DNA dynamics. Phosphorus, Sulfur, Silicon, 144: 301-304. ( Abstract and full text )

1995-1998 – KG postdoctoral work, University of Toronto:

Goto, N.K., Gardner, K.H., Mueller, G.A., Willis, R.C., and Kay, L.E. (1999) A robust and cost-effective method for the production of Val, Leu, Ile (δ1) methyl-protonated 15N-, 13C-, 2H-labeled proteins. J. Biomol. NMR, 13: 369-374. (Abstract and full text)

20. Gardner, K.H. and Kay, L.E. (1998) The use of 2H,13C,15N multidimensional NMR to study the structure and dynamics of proteins. Ann. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct., 27: 357-406. ( Abstract and full text )

19. Gardner, K.H., Zhang, X., Gehring, K., and Kay, L.E. (1998) Solution NMR studies of a 42 kDa maltose binding protein/β-cyclodextrin complex: chemical shift assignments and analysis. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 120: 11738-11748. ( Abstract and full text | Supporting information)

Zwahlen, C., Gardner, K.H., Sarma, S.P., Horita, D.A., Byrd, R.A., and Kay, L.E. (1998) An NMR experiment for measuring methyl-methyl NOEs in 13C labeled proteins with high resolution. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 120: 7617-7625. ( Abstract and full text )

Yang, D., Gardner, K.H., and Kay, L.E. (1998) A sensitive pulse scheme for measuring the backbone dihedral angle ψ based on cross-correlation between 13Cα-1Hα dipolar and carbonyl chemical shift anisotropy relaxation interactions. J. Biomol. NMR, 11: 213-220. (Abstract and full text)

Zwahlen, C., Vincent, S.J.F., Gardner, K.H., and Kay, L.E. (1998) Significantly improved resolution for NOE correlations from valine and isoleucine (Cγ2) methyl groups in 15N, 13C and 15N, 13C, 2H labeled proteins. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 120: 4825-4831. ( Abstract and full text )

Shan, X., Gardner, K.H., Muhandiram, D.R., Kay, L.E., and Arrowsmith, C.H. (1998) Subunit-specific backbone NMR assignments of a 64 kDa trp repressor/DNA complex: a role for N-terminal residues in tandem binding. J. Biomol. NMR, 11: 307-318. (Abstract and full text)

14. Kay, L.E. and Gardner, K.H. (1997) Solution NMR spectroscopy beyond 25 kDa. Curr. Op. Struct. Biol., 7: 722-731. ( Abstract and full text )

13. Hardy, B.J., Doughty, S., Parretti, M., Tennison, J., Finn, B., and Gardner, K.H. (1997) Internet conferences in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Prog. NMR. Spec., 31: 107-117. ( Abstract and full text )
12. Gardner, K.H. and Kay, L.E. (1997) Production and incorporation of 15N, 13C, 2H (1H δ1 methyl) isoleucine into proteins for multidimensional NMR studies. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 119: 7599-7600. ( Abstracts and full text | Supporting information )

Gardner, K.H., Rosen, M.K., and Kay, L.E. (1997) Global folds of highly deuterated, methyl-protonated proteins by multidimensional NMR. Biochemistry, 36: 1389-1401. ( Abstract and full text )

Gardner, K.H., Konrat, R., Rosen, M.K., and Kay, L.E. (1996) An (H)C(CO)NH- TOCSY pulse scheme for sequential assignment of protonated methyl groups in otherwise deuterated 15N, 13C labeled proteins. J. Biomol. NMR, 8: 351-356. (Abstract and full text)

Rosen, M.K., Gardner, K.H., Willis, R.C., Parris, W.E., Pawson, T., and Kay, L.E. (1996) Selective methyl protonation of perdeuterated proteins. J. Mol. Biol., 263: 627-636. ( Abstract and full text )

Shan, X., Gardner, K.H., Muhandiram, D.R., Rao, N.S., Arrowsmith, C.H., and Kay, L.E. (1996) Assignment of the 15N, 13Cα, 13Cβ and HN resonances in an 15N, 13C, 2H labeled 64kDa trp repressor-operator complex using triple resonance NMR spectroscopy and 2H decoupling. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 118: 6570-6579. ( Abstract and full text )

1989-1995 – KG graduate work, Yale University:

Gardner, K.H., Anderson, S.F., and Coleman, J.E. (1995) Solution structure of the K. lactis LAC9 Cd2Cys6 DNA-binding domain. Nature Struct. Biol., 2: 898-905. ( Abstract and full text )

Schweitzer, B.I., Gardner, K.H., and Tucker-Kellogg, G. (1995) HeteroTOCSY-based experiments for measuring heteronuclear relaxation in nucleic acids and proteins. J. Biomol. NMR, 6: 180-188. ( Abstract and full text )

Klemba, M., Gardner, K.H., Marino, S., Clarke, N.D., and Regan, L. (1995) A novel family of designed metal-binding proteins. Nature Struct. Biol., 2: 368-373. (addendum and correction: NSB 2: 912). ( Abstract and full text )

Gardner, K.H. and Coleman, J.E. (1994) 113Cd-1H heteroTOCSY: a method for determining metal-protein connectivities. J. Biomol. NMR 4: 761-774. ( Abstract and full text )

Schweitzer, B.I., Mikita, T., Kellogg, G.W., Gardner, K.H., and Beardsley, G.P. (1994) Solution structure of a DNA dodecamer containing the anti-neoplastic agent arabinosylcytosine: combined use of NMR, restrained molecular dynamics and full relaxation matrix refinement. Biochemistry 33: 11460-11475. ( Abstract and full text )

Gardner, K.H., Pan, T., Narula, S., Rivera, E., and Coleman, J.E. (1991) Structure of the binuclear metal-binding site in the GAL4 transcription factor. Biochemistry 30: 11292-11302.( Abstract and full text )
1985-1989 – KG undergraduate training, UC Davis

 Sekiguchi, J.M., Cole, A.D., Gardner K.H., and Kmiec, E.B. (1990) Transcription factor TFIIIA stimulates DNA supercoiling promoted by a fractionated cell-free extract from Xenopus laevis. Eur. J. Biochem. 192: 311-320. ( Abstract and full text )